Language

Validate against: http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#

Schema ID: http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Language-8.3.0.json

Type: object

Description

DLx uses the term language broadly to refer to any speech variety - whether a language, dialect, idiolect, or even a historical variety. The DLx Language object groups together all the information about the language, including writing systems, its phonological inventory, and metadata (e.g. names and language codes).

Developer Notes

This is a top-level database object

Required Properties

  • name

Properties

The following properties are defined for this object:

  • Type: type

    Type: string

    Read-only: true

    Description

    The type of object. Must be set to Language.

    This item must have the following value:

    "Language"
  • ID: id

    Description

    A unique database identifier for this Language

  • Abbreviation: abbreviation

    Type: string

    Description

    A short, human-readable abbreviation for this Language

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Abbreviation.json

  • Access Rights: access

    Type: object

    Description

    An object describing who may have access to materials on this language.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Access.json

  • Additional Names: additionalNames

    Type: array

    Description

    An Array of additional names for this Language. Only use this property if the name property is not sufficent to describe the various names for this language. Each additional name can be a plain string, or an object with two properties: name and note. The object format is preferred, since the note field provides a way to give a description of this additional name and where or by whom it was used.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Additional Language Name: additionalNames

    This item must also validate against exactly one of the following schemas:

    • Type: string

      Minimum length: 1

    • Type: object

      Required Properties

      • name
      • note

      Properties

      The following properties are defined for this object:

      • Additional Language Name: name

        Type: string

        Description

        The additional language name

        Minimum length: 1

      • Additional Language Note: note

        Type: object

        Description

        A note about this additional language, explaining where it is used and who uses it. You should use the language property of the Note to describe what language this additional name is in.

        Referenced Schema

        This item must validate against the following schema:

        http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Note.json

  • Autonym: autonym

    Type: object

    Description

    The autonym for this language, optionally in multiple orthographies. Note that this is a transcription of the autonym, and so should not be capitalized.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Transcription.json

  • Genetic Classification: classification

    Type: array

    Description

    The genetic classification of this language. This property must be an array of language families (in English), with larger family groupings listed before smaller ones. For example, Spanish might have an array of the following strings: Indo-European, Romance, Ibero-Romance. For language isolates, this property should be an array containing the single string, isolate.

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Language Family: classification

    Type: string

    Description

    The name of a language family, as a string, in English.

  • Contributors: contributors

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of people who contributed to the documentation, analysis, or curation of this language data in some way. It is strongly recommended that each Person object in this collection have its roles property specified, so that the contribution of each person is known.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Contributor (Person - Database Reference): contributors

    Type: object

    Description

    A database reference to a Person object describing a contributor

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

  • Date Created: dateCreated

    Type: string

    Description

    The date and optionally time that this Language object was created

    This item must also validate against exactly one of the following schemas:

    • Format: date

    • Format: date-time

  • Date Modified: dateModified

    Type: string

    Description

    The date an optionally time that this Language object was last modified

    This item must also validate against exactly one of the following schemas:

    • Format: date

    • Format: date-time

  • Glottolog Code: glottolog

    Type: string

    Description

    The Glottolog code for this language variety, as a String in the format abcd1234

    Regular expression to match: ^[a-z]{4}[0-9]{4}$

  • ISO 639-3 Code: iso

    Type: string

    Description

    The ISO 639-3 code for this language variety, as a 3-letter String

    Regular expression to match: ^[a-z]{3}$

  • Link: link

    Type: string

    Description

    A URL where a presentational format for this resource may be viewed

    Format: uri

  • Locations: locations

    Type: array

    Description

    Geographic locations where this language variety is spoken, optionally with geographic coordinate data

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Location (Database Reference): locations

    Type: object

    Description

    A database reference to a Location object describing a location where this language variety is spoken

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

  • Language Name: name

    Description

    The name of this Language, optionally in multiple languages. There must be a name provided in at least one language. Use the additionalNames field to list names for this language that need additional explanation or notes, or if there are multiple names for this variety in a language.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Notes: notes

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of notes about this language

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Note: notes

    Type: object

    Description

    A Note about this Language

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Note.json

  • Orthographies: orthographies

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of orthographies used to represent this Language

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Orthography: orthographies

    Type: object

    Description

    An orthography used to represent this language

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Orthography.json

  • Phonemes: phonemes

    Type: array

    Description

    The phonological inventory for this language, i.e. a collection of phonemes

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Phoneme: phonemes

    Type: object

    Description

    A Phoneme object

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Phoneme.json

  • Bibliographic References: references

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of bibliographic references about this language. If this collection grows large, it is recommended that references be stored in separate JSON documents instead.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Bibliographic Reference: references

    Type: object

    Description

    A bibliographic reference about this language

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/BibliographicReference.json

  • Tags: tags

    Type: object

    Description

    A set of tags for this Language

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Tags.json

  • URL: url

    Type: string

    Description

    A URL where the JSON data for this language can be found

    Format: uri

Additional Properties

Any additional properties must adhere to the following schema:

This schema imposes no restrictions. All values are valid.

Examples

The following are example values for this schema:

  • {
      "abbreviation": "chiti",
      "access": {
        "AILLA": "password",
        "notes": {
          "eng": "Materials on this language should not be made available to non-tribal members without permission."
        }
      },
      "additionalNames": [
        {
          "name": "Shetimashas",
          "note": {
            "source": "DWH",
            "text": "This is the name commonly used for the language by French colonials."
          }
        },
        "Chetimachas"
      ],
      "autonym": {
        "APA": "sitimaša",
        "IPA": "sitimaʃa",
        "Mod": "sitimaxa",
        "Swad": "sitimaša"
      },
      "contributors": [
        {
          "abbreviation": "DWH",
          "roles": [
            "researcher"
          ]
        },
        {
          "abbreviation": "BP",
          "roles": [
            "speaker"
          ]
        },
        {
          "abbreviation": "Swad",
          "roles": [
            "researcher"
          ]
        }
      ],
      "dateCreated": "2018-10-13T18:16:57.497Z",
      "dateModified": "2018-10-13T18:17:06.515Z",
      "defaultOrthography": "modern",
      "glottolog": "chit1248",
      "id": "4d633ee3-25ba-4add-83cf-b588ba51f758",
      "iso": "ctm",
      "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha",
      "locations": [
        {
          "name": "Charenton"
        }
      ],
      "name": {
        "eng": "Chitimacha",
        "fra": "Chitimachas",
        "spa": "chitimacha"
      },
      "notes": [
        {
          "text": "The best documentary materials on this language are those compiled by Morris Swadesh in 1930–1934."
        },
        {
          "text": "Chitimacha is a language isolate."
        }
      ],
      "orthographies": [
        {
          "abbreviation": "Mod",
          "graphemes": [
            {
              "form": "a",
              "pronunciations": [
                "a"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "aa",
              "pronunciations": [
                "aː"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "b",
              "pronunciations": [
                "pˀ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "c",
              "pronunciations": [
                "t͡ʃ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "d",
              "pronunciations": [
                "tˀ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "dz",
              "pronunciations": [
                "t͡sˀ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "e",
              "pronunciations": [
                "e"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "ee",
              "pronunciations": [
                "eː"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "g",
              "pronunciations": [
                "kˀ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "h",
              "pronunciations": [
                "h"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "j",
              "pronunciations": [
                "t͡ʃˀ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "k",
              "pronunciations": [
                "k"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "m",
              "pronunciations": [
                "m"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "mq",
              "pronunciations": [
                "ˀm"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "n",
              "pronunciations": [
                "n"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "nq",
              "pronunciations": [
                "ˀn"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "o",
              "pronunciations": [
                "o"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "oo",
              "pronunciations": [
                "oː"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "p",
              "pronunciations": [
                "p"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "q",
              "pronunciations": [
                "ʔ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "s",
              "pronunciations": [
                "s"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "t",
              "pronunciations": [
                "t"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "ts",
              "pronunciations": [
                "t͡s"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "u",
              "pronunciations": [
                "u"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "uu",
              "pronunciations": [
                "uː"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "w",
              "pronunciations": [
                "w"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "x",
              "pronunciations": [
                "ʃ"
              ]
            },
            {
              "form": "y",
              "pronunciations": [
                "j"
              ]
            }
          ],
          "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha/orthographies/Modern",
          "name": "Modern",
          "notes": [
            {
              "text": "This is the official orthography used by the Chitimacha Tribe."
            }
          ],
          "punctuation": [
            ".",
            "?",
            "!"
          ]
        },
        {
          "abbreviation": "APA",
          "graphemes": [],
          "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha/orthographies/APA",
          "name": "Americanist"
        }
      ],
      "phonemes": [
        {
          "airstream": "pulmonic",
          "ipa": "t",
          "manner": "plosive",
          "place": "alveolar",
          "voicing": "voiceless"
        },
        {
          "airstream": "pulmonic",
          "ipa": "t͡ʃ",
          "manner": "affricate",
          "place": "post-alveolar",
          "voicing": "voiceless"
        },
        {
          "airstream": "ejective",
          "ipa": "t͡ʃˀ",
          "manner": "affricate",
          "place": "post-alveolar",
          "voicing": "voiceless"
        }
      ],
      "references": [
        {
          "authors": [
            {
              "firstName": "Morris",
              "lastName": "Swadesh"
            }
          ],
          "city": "New York",
          "editors": [
            {
              "firstName": "Cornelius",
              "lastName": "Osgood"
            }
          ],
          "pages": "312-336",
          "publication": "Linguistic Structures of Native America",
          "publicationType": "book section",
          "title": "Chitimacha",
          "year": 1946
        }
      ],
      "tags": {
        "morphologicalType": "synthetic"
      },
      "type": "Language",
      "url": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha"
    }
  • {
      "abbreviation": "gusii",
      "access": {
        "notes": {
          "eng": "Unless otherwise noted, materials for this language may be made publicly accessible, and the speakers in the content identified."
        }
      },
      "additionalNames": [
        {
          "name": "Kikisii",
          "note": {
            "source": "DWH",
            "text": "This is a Swahili version of the name of this language. It is an alternate for simply `Kisii`."
          }
        }
      ],
      "autonym": {
        "IPA": "ékeɣusií",
        "Gus": "ékegusií",
        "Swa": "ekegusii"
      },
      "classification": [
        "Niger-Congo",
        "Atlantic-Congo",
        "Benue-Congo",
        "Bantoid",
        "Bantu",
        "Northeast Bantu",
        "Great Lakes Bantu",
        "Logooli-Kuria (E40)"
      ],
      "contributors": [
        {
          "abbreviation": "KB",
          "roles": [
            "lexicographer",
            "speaker"
          ]
        },
        {
          "abbreviation": "GM",
          "roles": [
            "lexicographer",
            "reviewer",
            "speaker"
          ]
        },
        {
          "abbreviation": "DWH",
          "roles": [
            "researcher"
          ]
        }
      ],
      "dateCreated": "2018-10-13T18:17:24.477Z",
      "dateModified": "2018-10-13T18:17:34.512Z",
      "glottolog": "gusi1247",
      "id": "708d1bd4-84f6-42e5-8b09-5c64493441b3",
      "iso": "guz",
      "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Gusii",
      "locations": [
        {
          "key": "Kisii"
        }
      ],
      "name": {
        "eng": "Gusii",
        "spa": "gusii",
        "swa": "Kisii"
      },
      "notes": [
        {
          "text": "In older versions of your notes, you referred to this language as Kisii rather than Gusii."
        }
      ],
      "orthographies": [
        {
          "abbreviation": "Practical",
          "direction": "ltr-ttb",
          "graphemes": [],
          "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Gusii/orthographies/Practical",
          "name": "Practical",
          "punctuation": [
            ".",
            "?",
            "!"
          ]
        },
        {
          "abbreviation": "Swahili",
          "direction": "ltr-ttb",
          "graphemes": [],
          "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Gusii/orthographies/Swahili",
          "name": "Swahili",
          "notes": [
            {
              "text": "This orthography represents the way that the language is written when using the Swahili orthography. Tone is omitted from this orthography."
            }
          ],
          "punctuation": [
            ".",
            "?",
            "!"
          ]
        }
      ],
      "phonemes": [],
      "type": "Language"
    }