Orthography

Validate against: http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#

Schema ID: http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Orthography-3.2.0.json

Type: object

Description

An orthography is a way of representing a particular language variety in writing. An orthography can include a set of acceptable graphemes (characters), punctuation, and word separators.

Required Properties

  • graphemes
  • name

Properties

The following properties are defined for this object:

  • Type: type

    Type: string

    Read-only: true

    Description

    The type of object. Must be set to Orthography.

    This item must have the following value:

    "Orthography"
  • ID: id

    Description

    A unique database identifier for this Orthography

  • Abbreviation: abbreviation

    Type: string

    Description

    An abbreviation for this Orthography

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Abbreviation.json

  • Text Direction: direction

    Type: string

    Description

    The direction that this orthography is typically written in. If an orthography can be written in more than one direction, you should create a second Orthography for each direction it can be written in. The value of the direction field consists of two parts: the horizontal direction and the vertical direction, separated by a hyphen. Horizontal direction may be ltr (left-to-right), rtl (right-to-left), or boustrophedon (alternately left-to-right and right-to-left). Vertical direction may be either ttb (top-to-bottom) or btt (bottom-to-top).

    Allowed Values

    • "ltr-ttb"
    • "rtl-ttb"
    • "ltr-btt"
    • "rtl-btt"
    • "boustrophedon-ttb"
    • "boustrophedon-btt"

    Default Value

    The default value for this item is:

    "ltr-ttb"
  • Graphemes: graphemes

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of graphemes, i.e. units of writing within a writing system, for this Orthography. Each grapheme is an attribute, and the value of that attribute is an object containing information about it. Punctuation characters should not be included in this collection (see the punctuation attribute instead).

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Grapheme: graphemes

    Type: object

    Description

    An object representing a grapheme

    Required Properties

    • form

    Properties

    The following properties are defined for this object:

    • Allographs: allographs

      Type: array

      Description

      A list of all the allographs (graphical / writing variants) of the current grapheme. For example, t in an English orthography would have the allograph T. Generally the lowercase form of a letter should be used as the default.

      Items must be unique: true

      Items

      Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

      Allograph: allographs

      Type: string

    • Grapheme Form: form

      Type: string

      Description

      The written form of this grapheme. Graphemes should include their diacritics. For example, c and should be considered separate graphemes, unless they are allographs. Do not include graphemes for characters that only occur as part of a digraph (or trigraph, etc.). For example, standard Swahili orthography has a grapheme ch, but no grapheme c by itself, so c would not be listed as a grapheme, only ch.

      Minimum length: 1

    • Grapheme Name: name

      Type: string

      Description

      The name of this grapheme, if any

    • Pronunciations: pronunciations

      Type: array

      Description

      A list of the possible pronunciations of this grapheme, in IPA. It may be difficult or impossible to fill in this field for all orthographies (like English).

      Items must be unique: true

      Items

      Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

      Pronunciation: pronunciations

      Type: string

      Minimum length: 1

    Additional Properties

    Any additional properties must adhere to the following schema:

    No values are valid for this schema.

  • Link: link

    Type: string

    Description

    A URL where a presentational format for this resource may be viewed

    Format: uri

  • Orthography Name: name

    Description

    The name of this orthography (e.g. Practical, Phonemic), optionally in multiple languages (e.g. both Phonemic and Fonémica). The name of the orthography must be provided in at least one language.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Notes: notes

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of notes about this Orthography

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Note: notes

    Type: object

    Description

    A note about this orthography

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Note.json

  • Punctuation: punctuation

    Type: array

    Description

    A list of all the punctuation characters in this orthography, including white space and non-breaking characters.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Punctuation Character: punctuation

    Type: string

    Minimum length: 1

  • Tags: tags

    Type: object

    Description

    A set of tags for this orthography

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Tags.json

  • URL: url

    Type: string

    Description

    A URL where this Orthography may be accessed in JSON format

    Format: uri

Additional Properties

Any additional properties must adhere to the following schema:

This schema imposes no restrictions. All values are valid.

Examples

The following are example values for this schema:

  • {
      "abbreviation": "Mod",
      "direction": "ltr-ttb",
      "graphemes": [
        {
          "allographs": [
            "A"
          ],
          "form": "a",
          "pronunciations": [
            "a"
          ]
        },
        {
          "form": "aa",
          "pronunciations": [
            "aː"
          ]
        },
        {
          "allographs": [
            "B"
          ],
          "form": "b",
          "pronunciations": [
            "pˀ"
          ]
        },
        {
          "allographs": [
            "C"
          ],
          "form": "c",
          "pronunciations": [
            "t͡ʃ"
          ]
        },
        {
          "allographs": [
            "D"
          ],
          "form": "d",
          "pronunciations": [
            "tˀ"
          ]
        }
      ],
      "id": "f7c84181-c84e-43d5-a007-651294dd83d0",
      "name": "Modern",
      "notes": [
        {
          "text": "This orthography was originally developed by Julien Granberry, and later modified in line with suggestions from Daniel W. Hieber."
        }
      ],
      "punctuation": [
        " ",
        ".",
        "?",
        "!",
        "'",
        "\""
      ],
      "type": "Orthography",
      "url": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha/orthographies/Modern"
    }