Sense

Validate against: http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#

Schema ID: http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Sense-1.1.1.json

Type: object

Description

A sense is one of the possible meanings of a lexeme. For example, the lexeme run has many different senses, such as as “run in a race” and “run water in a sink”. It is up to the linguist to decide whether two particular uses of a lexeme count as the same sense or different senses.

Required Properties

  • gloss

Dependencies

This object has the following dependencies between properties:

  • If this object has the variantType property, it must have the following properties as well:

    • variantOf

Properties

The following properties are defined for this object:

  • Type: type

    Type: string

    Read-only: true

    Description

    The type of object. Must be set to Sense.

    This item must have the following value:

    "Sense"
  • Argument Structure: argumentStructure

    Type: string

    Description

    An abstract representation of the argument structure for this sense

  • Lexical Category (Part of Speech, Morphosyntactic Class, etc.): category

    Description

    The lexical category, part of speech, or morphosyntactic class for this Lexeme, optionally in multiple languages. If the current lexeme is an affix or other grammatical morpheme morpheme, this field should be used to describe the category that the morpheme attaches to. For example, the English verb suffix ‑s would have this this property set to verb, and the English derivational suffix ‑ize would have this property set to noun.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Definition: definition

    Description

    The definition for this particular sense, optionally in multiple languages

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Derived Category: derives

    Description

    If this lexeme is a derivational morpheme, this field indicates the type of lexical category, part of speech, or morphosyntactic class that is derived when this morpheme is applied. For example, the English derivational suffix ‑er would have this property set to noun, since this suffix derives nouns from verbs. May be in multiple languages.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Examples: examples

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of examples illustrating this sense in use. Each example is an Utterance from a Text. The Utterance number should be indicated in the index field of the Database Reference object. If using a full Utterance object rather than a Database Reference object, the key field should be included. For precision’s sake, it is recommended that examples be given for individual senses rather than the entire lexeme when possible.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Example Utterance (Database Reference): examples

    Type: object

    Description

    A database reference to an Utterance object

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

  • Gloss: gloss

    Description

    A Leipzig-style gloss for this sense. A gloss must be provided in at least one language.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

    This item must also validate against exactly one of the following schemas:

    • Type: string

      Minimum length: 1

    • Type: object

      Minimum number of properties: 1

  • Lexical Relations: lexicalRelations

    Type: array

    Description

    A list of the lexical relations that this sense has to other senses of different lexemes. Each item is a Database Reference, and must also have a property called relation, indicating the type of lexical relation. For precision’s sake, lexical relations should be specified for individual senses rather than the entire lexeme whenever possible.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    lexicalRelations

    This item must also validate against all of the following schemas:

    • Lexeme (Database Reference)

      Type: object

      Description

      A database reference representing a lexical relation between two senses. Note: The database reference must also have a relation property specified, indicating the type of lexical relation.

      Referenced Schema

      This item must validate against the following schema:

      http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

    • Required Properties

      • relation

      Properties

      The following properties are defined for this object:

      • Relation Type: relation

        Type: string

        Description

        The type of lexical relation that holds between the current sense and the referenced sense. Can also be used for general cross-references (a compare relation) or historical relationships (a derivedFrom or originOf relation). Examples: antonym, synonym, cognate, derivedFrom, originOf, compare, partOf, hypernymOf, hyponymOf.

        Referenced Schema

        This item must validate against the following schema:

        http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Abbreviation.json

  • Link: link

    Type: string

    Description

    A URL where a presentational format for this sense may be viewed

    Format: uri

  • Media: media

    Type: array

    Description

    Media items associated with this sense, such as pictures of the item this word refers to, or videos of the action being performed. When a media item pertains to a specific sense, it should be placed in that sense’s media field rather than the lexeme’s.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Media Item (Database Reference): media

    Type: object

    Description

    A database reference to a media item associated with this sense

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

  • Notes: notes

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of notes about this sense. Each Note object must have its noteType property specified. Notes with a note type of private are not intended for publication in dictionaries, while other types of notes are. For precision’s sake, it is recommended that notes be attached to specific senses instead of the lexeme whenever possible.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    notes

    This item must also validate against all of the following schemas:

    • Note

      Type: object

      Description

      A note about this sense

      Referenced Schema

      This item must validate against the following schema:

      http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Note.json

    • Required Properties

      • noteType

      Properties

      The following properties are defined for this object:

      • Note Type: noteType

        Type: string

        Description

        The type of note about this sense

        Allowed Values

        • "private"
        • "general"
        • "anthropology"
        • "discourse"
        • "encyclopedic"
        • "grammar"
        • "phonology"
        • "semantics"
        • "sociocultural"
  • Bibliographic References: references

    Type: array

    Description

    A collection of bibliographic references relating to this sense. For example, a particular sense may have been discussed in detail in a published article.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Reference: references

    Type: object

    Description

    A bibliographic Reference about this sense

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/BibliographicReference.json

  • Scientific Name: scientificName

    Type: string

    Description

    The scientific name for this item

  • Sources: sources

    Type: array

    Description

    A list of attested sources for this sense, such as a citation to a published text where it appears, the key of an Utterance in the database, or the initials of the speaker who provided it. For precision’s sake, sources should be listed for specific senses of a lexeme rather than the lexeme whenever possible.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Source: sources

    Type: string

    Description

    An attested source for this sense. This will often be the initials of a speaker, but could also be the abbreviation of the story the sense was found it, or a citation to a published text in which the sense appears.

    Minimum length: 1

  • Tags: tags

    Type: object

    Description

    A set of tags for this sense

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/Tags.json

  • Usages: usages

    Type: array

    Description

    A list of the appropriate usages for this sense. Examples include formal, medicinal, informal, etc.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    Usage: usages

    Description

    An appropriate usage for this sense, optionally in multiple languages

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Variant Of: variantOf

    Type: object

    Description

    If this sense is a variant of another sense, a reference to the other sense should go here. For example, sometimes two speakers may use the same word with a slightly different set of senses. In American English, for instance, Coke is a specific brand of soda for most speakers, but a generic term for soda for other speakers. The generic sense would therefore be listed as a dialectal variant of the specific sense.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

  • Variants: variants

    Type: array

    Description

    A list of variations of this this sense. This field should be used for dialectal and idiolectal variants, register-based variants, variations in meaning, spelling variants, etc. Each variant should have its variantType property specified.

    Items must be unique: true

    Items

    Each item in this array must adhere to the following schema:

    variants

    This item must also validate against all of the following schemas:

    • Variant (Database Reference)

      Type: object

      Description

      A database reference to a variant of this sense. Note: The Database Reference object must have a variantType property, indicating the type of variant.

      Referenced Schema

      This item must validate against the following schema:

      http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/DatabaseReference.json

    • Required Properties

      • variantType

      Properties

      The following properties are defined for this object:

      • Variant Type: variantType

        Description

        This field is be used to specify the type of variant. Possible values might be a person’s name (representing an idiolectal variant), or simply idiolectal, or dialectal (or the name of the dialect), etc. May be in multiple languages.

        Referenced Schema

        This item must validate against the following schema:

        http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

  • Variant Type: variantType

    Description

    If this sense is a variant of another sense, this field can be used to specify the type of variant. Possible values might be a person’s name (representing an idiolectal variant), or simply idiolectal, or dialectal (or the name of the dialect), etc. May be in multiple languages.

    Referenced Schema

    This item must validate against the following schema:

    http://schemas.digitallinguistics.io/MultiLangString.json

Additional Properties

Any additional properties must adhere to the following schema:

This schema imposes no restrictions. All values are valid.

Examples

The following are example values for this schema:

  • {
      "argumentStructure": "eat(agent, patient)",
      "category": "transitive verb",
      "definition": "to eat",
      "gloss": "eat",
      "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha/lexemes/guxt/senses/2"
    }
  • {
      "category": "verb",
      "definition": "A suffix that derives transitive verbs from intransitive verbs",
      "derives": "verb",
      "gloss": "TR",
      "link": "https://data.digitallinguistics.io/languages/Chitimacha/lexemes/t1/senses/1"
    }
  • {
      "category": "noun",
      "definition": "a male",
      "gloss": "male",
      "media": [
        {
          "id": "b032fe58-0deb-44fc-8001-e3ba63145417",
          "filename": "qasi-2.jpg"
        }
      ]
    }